“It’s something I always wanted to do”: Serious leisure, self-actualisation and social engagement

I recently published a paper in the Journal of Documentation (Mansourian, 2021) to report the findings from a research project that I have done from 2018 to 2020 in the School of Information Studies at Charles Sturt University. In this project, I explored various information activities of serious leisure participants to discover and depict their information seeking and sharing patterns. My research approach was qualitative in an interpretive paradigm, and I used semi-structured interviews to collect the data. Then I used thematic analysis method to analyse the collected data and identify the concepts and categories. I have also used a maximum variation sampling strategy to find people from different backgrounds with different stories. By the end of the project, I interviewed twenty volunteers and I had a chance to talk to people from a broad range of hobbies, amateurism and voluntary activities. They have been actively involved in cycling, gardening, knitting, bushwalking, weaving, bonsai growing, amateur filmmaking and so on.

Gardening is a form of Serious Leisure. Photo by Yazdan Mansourian, Wagga Wagga, January 2021

The results revealed serious leisure is a unique context in terms of the abundance, richness and diversity of information activities embedded into a vast range of actions. Furthermore, information seeking and sharing in serious leisure is not only a source of personal satisfaction for the participants, but it also can provide them with a sense of purpose in a meaningful journey towards self-actualisation and social inclusion. Information professionals working across the GLAM sector can use this study to enhance their information services to boost society’s leisure and recreational activities, which are necessary for everyone’s emotional and mental wellbeing. Serious leisure participants are usually among the devoted clients of libraries, museums, archives and galleries and they typically use information services very frequently.


Mansourian, Y. (2021). Information activities in serious leisure as a catalyst for self-actualisation and social engagement. Journal of Documentation, https://doi.org/10.1108/JD-08-2020-0134

I watch the birdwatcher: An introduction to serious leisure

Yazdan Mansourian, PhD, AALIA

Photo by Yazdan Mansourian, Shellharbour Beach, November 2020

My research program is about serious leisure. If you have not heard this term before, you might find it puzzling. This even may look like an oxymoron. How come something is serious and leisurely at the same time? However, it is not as absurd as it looks. Serious leisure includes all forms of hobbies, amateur or voluntary activities which require long term commitment and some specific knowledge or skills. Serious leisure participants are passionate about their chosen activity and truly enjoy it. Even after a while it will be part of their identity. Serious leisure does not happen overnight. This is the result of a gradual development of a casual or an occasional leisure.

I can explain it with an example. Imagine sometimes you walk in a park nearby your home and enjoy listening to the birds singing around. Obviously it does not require any skills or commitment. This is a casual leisure which helps you to relax. However, there is always a potential in any casual leisure to gradually become serious. For instance, once you may notice a beautiful bird singing on a tree which looks very cute. Next day you see the same bird and eventually decide to find out more about it. Then you take a photo of the bird and search it on the Web. After a while, you might become more interested in the birds living around your neighbourhood and start taking their photos to share them with your friends through social media. Finally, you may find this activity fascinating and join a birdwatching club. That’s it! In this stage your casual leisure turned into a serious one!

Libraries in general and public libraries in particular can support serious leisure. As in almost all types of serious leisure people need to search and share information, a library can be a perfect source of reliable information. Also, public libraries are social hubs and can provide people with facilities to advocate leisure activities. If we promote serious leisure, it will bring a number of benefits for public libraries and their patrons such as creating communities of interest and Information Grounds, enriching the library collection and promoting the library events and programs (Mansourian and Bannister, 2019).

Serious leisure is an important topic because research shows it is a source of pleasure and purpose for people and can enhance their physical, emotional and social wellbeing. It helps them to create new forms of identity linked to their hobbies, amateurism or volunteerism. Besides, it brings many benefits such as self-actualisation and a feeling of achievement (Kim et al., 2014; Shupe & Gagné, 2016; Cheng, et al, 2017; Lee et al. 2018). In terms of social benefits, it can create a sense of belonging and social connectedness (Lee and Ewert, 2019).

Serious leisure is a multidisciplinary topic and scholars from different disciplines study it. My research is about human information behaviour in this context. I investigate how people search, browse, collect, organise, share and use information in their leisure time. Findings of my research have practical implications in theory, policy and practice. In the theory level it contributes in creating new knowledge about the interaction of people with information sources beyond their work or study settings, when they look for information just for fun. In the policy level the results can inform policy makers to make evidence-based decisions in the leisure areas like music, sport and entertaining. In the practice level the result will be useful for both information system designers and serious leisure participants. The designers can consider real needs of users to enhance the usability of the systems. Serious leisure pursuers also can improve their information seeking (Mansourian, 2020).


Cheng, E. Stebbins, R. Packer, J. (2017). Serious leisure amongst older gardeners in Australia. Leisure Studies 35(4), 505-518.

Kim, J., Yamada, N. Heo, J.  Han, A. (2014). Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 9(1), 1-9.

Lee, K. & Ewert, A. (2019). Understanding the motivations of serious leisure participation: A self-determination approach, Annals of Leisure Research, 22(1), 76-96.

Lee, C., Sung, Y.-T., Zhou, Y., & Lee, S. (2018). The relationships between the seriousness of leisure activities, social support and school adaptation among Asian international students in the U.S. Leisure Studies, 37(2), 197-210.

Mansourian, Y. (2020). How passionate people seek and share various forms of information in their serious leisure. The Journal of the Australian Library and Information Association, 69(1), 17-30.  

Mansourian, Y., & Bannister, M. (2019). Five benefits of serious leisure for a public library. Incite, 40(5/6), 32-33.

Shupe, F. L., & Gagné, P. (2016). Motives for and personal and social benefits of airplane piloting as a serious leisure activity for women. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 45(1), 85–112.

Defining the value and impact of libraries

Associate Professor Hamid Jamali

Value and impact are terms that are sometimes loosely defined and used. Assessing and providing evidence of the value and impact of libraries is something that many researchers and practitioners, at least over the last two decades, have tried to address. The reason for great attention to value and impact has been partly the pressure on libraries to demonstrate their value and impact in order to justify their budget or investment by stakeholders. Terms such as value, impact and outcome have been used sometimes interchangeably without clear differentiation. And sometimes they are combined with adjectives such as economic value/impact or social value/impact. The literature on assessing or measuring impact or value of libraries of different kinds (academic, school, public etc.) is extensive and there have already been a few reviews of them such as Debono (2002), Missingham (2005) and Stenstrom, Cole and Hanson (2019).

Value, when used in the context of economic value, is clearer than when it is used in the context of social value. In the economic sense, it might be related to the concepts of Return on Investment or financial value of services. A lot of time value is linked to the perception of users and what is measured as value is how valuable users or stakeholders in general perceive library services to be.

Impact, however, is about change in something. It might be a change in behaviour, ability, skills, or other things. Impact can be negative or positive. In the context of libraries, it is assumed that impact refers to positive impact. We can assume that if something has a value it might have an impact and if something has had a positive impact then it must have some value too.

Having clear definitions of the terms such as value and impact is necessary to ensure clarity of communication between librarians and their stakeholders and policymakers. Librarians use such terms to justify their budget and investment in their resources. While there is a good body of literature on evaluating or measuring value and impact, less has been written on what they mean and what their differences are.


Stenstrom, C., Cole, N., & Hanson, R. (2019). A review exploring the facets of the value of public libraries. Library Management, 40(6/7), 354-367. https://doi.org/10.1108/LM-08-2018-0068

Missingham, R. (2005). Libraries and economic value: a review of recent studies. Performance measurement and metrics, 6(3), 142-158. https://doi.org/10.1108/14678040510636711

Debono, B. (2002). Assessing the social impact of public libraries: What the literature is saying. Australasian public libraries and information services15(2), 80-94.

Unearthing controversies in Special Collections

Dr Jessie Lymn

There’s an oft-cited question that gets asked when delving into the bowels of academic library special collections – “just what is so special about special collections?“. For university libraries especially, the special collections (or rare books, or manuscripts, or many other titles) are where some of the most socially, culturally and economically valuable parts of the library’s collection are held, and also some of the most diverse and controversial.

These challenges of collecting, preserving and managing the diversity of values in special collections is both demanding and productive, and can be considered reflective of the same challenges faced during the ‘first life’ of these publications and objects.

Take for example, student newspapers held in university library special collections across Australia.

Student newspapers have been part of university life on campus since the early 20th century, with sandstone universities such as the Universities of Melbourne, Sydney and Adelaide first publishing Farrago, Honi Soit and On Dit. Usually published by student unions or associations, these newspapers have produced controversial moments in Australian history, including Tharunka’s 1970 ‘Literary Supplement of Works that Cannot be Published’, Rabelais‘s 1995 ‘The Art of Shoplifting’ and Honi Soit‘s ‘vulvagate‘ issue in 2013. Student newspapers have also featured in the careers of now esteemed members of Australia journalism and politics, and have been the site of much contention around funding during the introduction of Voluntary Student Unionism in the early 2000s in Australia.

But are these significant records of life on campus in Australia being collected and preserved, and how accessible are they? In 2019 we evaluated a selection of collections of these student published newspapers and magazines across a range of universities. We found that across the sample of universities we looked at, all had collections of their student newspapers, mostly held in the university library, and sometimes in both the library and archives. Of the 20 universities, just over half had digitised their collections and they were publicly accessible, but not all issues and not a clear run of issues. But while they may be there, we found that university collections of student newspapers are hard to find. Only half had descriptive metadata in the catalogue that indicated the publication was a student newspaper from that university, and we mapped a number of complex pathways to find both physical and digital copies of the publications. And given the often controversial, offensive and triggering content featured in the uncensored publications, the digital collections didn’t feature any warnings of what content might be encountered.

Lymn, J., & Jones, T. (2020). Radical Holdings? Student Newspaper Collections in Australian University Libraries and Archives. Journal of the Australian Library and Information Association, 69(3), 330-344. https://doi.org/10.1080/24750158.2020.1760529

A Social Worker in the Library – a new article tells the Melbourne story

Melbourne City Libraries

Having seen news articles like this one: ‘Libraries start new chapter to support vulnerable’ , I became interested in the role that public libraries can play in working with vulnerable members of our communities. If Melbourne City Libraries had employed a social worker to help library staff with this role, I thought there must be lessons that can be learned from that experience. After arranging a meeting with Leanne Mitchell at the Melbourne City Library, I was able to talk with her about the project, where it was going and what steps they had taken to evaluate the work they were doing.

We decided then to write a paper that explored the Melbourne experience so other public libraries could learn from these experiences. Once we started writing this article, it became clear that what was missing from the story was some background about social work practice. What do social workers actually do? What are the principles of social work that can be applied to work in libraries? Working at Charles Sturt University we are in the fortunate position to have social work academics working within the School of Humanities and Social Sciences. After approaching these academics, two showed an interest in working with me and the Melbourne Libraries to write our paper. Dr Karen Bell and Dr Sabine Wardle became our co-authors and the writing continued. As we came near to completing our writing, we had the opportunity to include some case notes created by Anna Lockwood, the Social Worker at Melbourne Libraries during her work with library visitor. These were a unique testament to the value and impact of the work she was doing, and Anna was keen to join the writing team.

Together Leanne, Karen, Sabine, Anna and I was able to complete a paper that moves beyond the existing literature about social workers in libraries to include data about the work undertaken and the needs of the library users served. Steps for evaluating the program are included, as are recommendations to public libraries who are interested in undertaking similar programs themselves, along with feedback from library staff about the value and benefits to them in having Anna on staff. Perhaps most importantly, for the first time we have an Australian perspective of the relationship between public libraries and social work and the members of our communities who have been helped through the program have been given an opportunity to have their stories told.

The article has now been published in Public Library Quarterly, and an eprint of the article is available at:

Garner, J., Mitchell, L., Bell, K., Lockwood, A & Wardle, S. (2020) Social Work in Australian Public Libraries: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Social Justice, Public Library Quarterly, DOI: 10.1080/01616846.2020.1825917

Dr Jane Garner

Are Australia’s new public libraries here for the long term?

#1202 Green Square Library

When I joined the School of Information studies at Charles Sturt University back in May 2019 I was intrigued to learn about the Study Visits that were run for students. These are week-long visits to an Australian city or region, with an itinerary packed with visits to interesting libraries and archives. As well as providing incredibly valuable learning opportunities for students, these visits also represent opportunities for lecturers to re-engage with practice, and see first-hand the work that information professionals are doing.

My first time leading a study a visit was for a trip to Sydney in September 2019. The Wednesday of that week featured a double-bill of fabulous new public libraries. In the morning we visited Woollahra Library at Double Bay, and in the afternoon the City of Sydney’s Green Square Library. Both are wonderful, innovative spaces, run by passionate librarians.

As impressive as these spaces are, I was left with a nagging doubt. I had just arrived in Australia from the UK, where I had spent the previous ten years watching the public library service being decimated by ever more violent funding cuts. The city in which I lived and worked – Sheffield – had seen libraries handed over to volunteers to run, while in many other places library branches were simply shut. New flagship libraries, such as the Library of Birmingham, had faced devastating cuts to operating budgets. In this context, seeing Sydney’s sparkling new libraries was inspiring, but also worrying. How sustainable are these developments?

At Green Square and Double Bay that day I asked librarians whether they had any concerns about their funding in years to come. The librarians were typically optimistic – they felt that the contributions their buildings and services made to communities were sufficiently valued, and embedded in longer-term city planning. But there clearly are concerns. The Renew our Libraries campaign, for example, has been successful in its goal to increase the level state funding for libraries in NSW, and is now campaigning to protect those funding increases.

This has led us to begin work a research project that will investigate public library infrastructure development in Asutralia. It will explore the purpose of the new libraries like Double Bay and Green Square, the processes that underpin their development, the funding models used to finance them, and the extent to which PL infrastructure developments are integrated with broader cultural/creative city strategies.

Dr Simon Wakeling

Public libraries post-COVID

While we continue to research the ways in which libraries are responding to the challenge of the COVID-19 pandemic, we might do well to also consider what the situation will be like for libraries once the virus is finally brought under control. It’s unlikely to be the same. Clearly the measures that have been put in place in most countries across the world to ‘flatten the curve’ will have a lasting economic impact, the result of which will almost inevitably see increased pressure on public spending. Many countries’ economies are already entering a recession.

As it is, many public libraries are still reeling from the cuts that made due to the recessions instigated by the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) over a decade ago. The irony, however, is that it is during periods of economic downturn when public libraries are most needed and most used, particularly by those hardest hit. I was reminded of this when I came across Christine Rooney-Browne’s 2009 Library Review article, ‘Rising to the challenge: A look at the role of public libraries in times of recession by economic downturns.’ Although the cause of the recession that she was writing about (i.e. the GFC) was very different, her warnings and concerns for public libraries appear just as relevant in 2020. We will need to convince the powers-that-be, post-COVID, that libraries, especially public libraries, should be part of the recovery plan, rather than a line item to be deleted.

Rooney-Browne noted that ‘Public library authorities in the UK and USA … reported huge increases in visitor numbers, shifts in societal expectations, and demands for specific ‘‘job related’’ resources and services’ following the GFC. With many people losing their jobs and livelihoods as economic activity slows almost to a halt during lock-down, public libraries look set to see demand for a wide range of resources increase similarly in 2021. Back in 2009, the author also predicted, however, that public libraries ‘will be subject to ongoing review over the next few years as governments and local councils attempt to cut public spending.’ Unfortunately, these predictions came to pass in the 2010s, with UK libraries in particularly suffering numerous library closures and acute budget cuts. Will there be a ‘second wave’ in the 2020s?

Katoomba Public Library
Katoomba Public Library

Professor Philip Hider

Rooney‐Browne, C. (2009). ‘Rising to the challenge: A look at the role of public libraries in times of recession.’ Library Review 58 (5): 341-352. https://doi.org/10.1108/00242530910961765

Library resources provide experiences as well as information

Library cataloguers have spent a hundred plus years indexing the subjects of books and other resources, but paid relatively little attention to some other aspects, such as their genre. For example, the Library of Congress Subject Headings are pervasive in countless library catalogues, and have been since the first half of the last century, yet the Library of Congress Genre/Form Headings (LCGFT) were only established a few years ago, and are still something of a work in progress.

A series of studies I’m presently carrying out is assessing the applicability of the LCGFT by comparing them with other genre lists, and by comparing their use with that of other terms that have not yet made it into LCGFT. In one particular study, the use made by LibraryThing taggers of certain fiction genres listed in Wikipedia but not in LCGFT was compared with the use they made of those genres that are included in LCGFT. It was found that, on average, the non-LCGFT genres were used a lot more than were the LCGFT ones, with genres such as chick lit, pulp and hardboiled major omissions in terms of ‘user warrant’.

This raises the question of why cataloguers have been less keen on describing their resources in terms of genre, or at least certain genres. The paper I wrote for the International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO) conference, based on the study, suggests a few possible explanations. Of course, librarians could be reluctant to use terms that might be considered derogatory, though a lot of LibraryThing taggers appear to have fewer such inhibitions. But I think it goes deeper than this. Many of the missing genres, and many genres in general, relate to the experience a resource provides, more than to its content. Yet libraries have traditionally treated their resources objectively, leaving experience a matter for the user (or reader, in the case of fiction). This position of neutrality can be found in a lot of cataloguing literature, and explains why cataloguers focus on content and subjects: what a resource is about, rather than what it gives, or what it is for. In a postmodern world, however, especially one in which public libraries follow more inclusive (and popular) collection development policies, this focus may be too narrow and less helpful. The biennial ISKO conference has been postponed until 2022, but my paper will nevertheless be published in the ‘proceedings’ later this year!

Philip Hider

Special issue of the Journal of the Australian Library and Information Association

Prof Philip Hider has just written up a guest editorial for an upcoming issue of the Journal of the Australian Library and Information Association featuring some of the papers presented at the Fifteenth Australasian Conference on Research Applications in Information and Library Studies (RAILS), held on 28 and 29 October last year at St Mark’s National Theological Centre in Canberra. Philip was chair of the conference’s program committee, with the event being hosted by CSU’s School of Information Studies. The conference’s themes was ‘Towards critical information research, education and practice’, and if ever there was a time for a critical approach this is probably it, with so many competing messages being peddled by various powers around the world. Criticism begins at home, though, and there were a number of papers at the conference about how library services need to reach out more effectively to disadvantaged groups, and how librarians need to reflect not only on how they deliver their services, but also on why they do, and what their impact is (or is not).

A couple of the articles in the special issue are co-authored by LRG members. Jessie Lymn, together with Tamara Jones (a student in CSU’s Masters of Information Studies course), report on a survey they’re doing on student newspaper collections to be found in Australian university libraries, while Philip has written up the presentation he and Hollie White (Curtin University) gave on film genre vocabularies used by film institutes in Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. A total of 39 papers were presented at RAILS 2019, with 60 delegates in attendance. Present circumstances might derail (no pun intended!) the plans for this year’s RAILS, which was going to be held at the Victoria University of Wellington, in New Zealand.

Libraries in Australian Juvenile Justice Facilities

Parkville Justice Centre sign

Dr Jane Garner

In late 2019, I undertook a unique study of the status of libraries in Australia’s juvenile justice facilities. The goal of the study was to discover how many libraries were in our juvenile justice facilities, how they were staffed, funded, and used by the young people living in correctional detention. As each facility houses a registered secondary college that all residents must attend, there was a particular interest in how these libraries were contributing to the education of detainees.

My preliminary findings identify that there are sixteen juvenile justice facilities in Australia, and of these, twelve provide some sort of library service to their residents. Of those twelve libraries, none are staffed by a person with library training, five are no more than a collection of books in a classroom, while the remaining seven have their own dedicated space. The collections of seven of the twelve libraries play a role in the educational programs of the facility, with that role ranging from the provision of reading materials for kids in ‘time out’ due to disruptive behaviour in class through to teachers and students accessing the collection for resources that are relevant to the classroom activities and lessons. 

I will be publishing my detailed findings of the current provision of library services to Australian children living in correctional detention along with a discussion of the value of libraries to user groups such as these in the near future.